Tag Archives: sales

Thinking about being a Pharmaceutical Sales Representative

People researching pharmaceutical sales as a career option often come across some of my blog posts and ask my opinion about becoming a rep.  It seems everybody has their own impressions about what pharmaceutical sales is all about and why this might be a good job or career choice.

Seasoned veterans looking for a new position have their own criteria for making a change, often just trying to determine if a company can deliver what they are looking for that they aren’t getting from their current position.  For some, including those who might have been laid off,  it’s more about whether or not they want to continue being a pharmaceutical sales rep, finding “the right company”, making more money, or maybe even making a big change and pursuing another sales field (e.g., medical devices) altogether.

Some of the requests I get come from those who have never done pharmaceutical sales but have heard about the attractive starting salaries, enticing bonus opportunities, car, full benefits, an expense account, and flexible schedule.  For others, however, pharmaceutical sales  is just another job option rather than a career aspiration.   This situation is probably more prevalent today, especially in this economy where it is difficult to get any job.

Finding a job and pursuing an career opportunity can be an emotional roller coaster, which can cloud thinking and compromise decision making.  This is especially true when an unemployed person is desperate to pay bills.  Therefore, rather than draft a job description and debate the pros and cons for becoming a pharmaceutical sales representative, here are some questions to help think through some of the issues.

    • Are you comfortable with what you have been able to find out about the company?
    • Does the company have a product or products that you can believe in?
    • Is the territory in a place you want to live?
    • How extensive (how long) is training?
    • How important is understanding the science and medicine behind the products?
    • How does the company determine you are ready to sell their products?
    • What resources does the company provide to help you sell their products?
    • Are physician presentations “scripted” marketing messages or conversational?
    • What training do you get for working in a “managed market?”
    • What is the sales performance history for the territory?
    • What is the reputation of the previous representative in the territory?
    • How much managed care is in the territory? Is managed care helping or hurting sales?
    • Are your products on formularies with favorable reimbursement status? Any major issues?
    • Can you see the influential and high volume prescribers in your territory (access rate)?
    • Have you met your manager and is it somebody you feel you could trust and work with?
    • How successful has your manager been from a sales perspective?
    • Does your manager have a District of sales superstars or average performers?
    • How many people has your manager had promoted?
    • What are the job expectations?
    • How will your performance be measured?  (e.g., sales, customer feedback, activities)
    • How are territory sales measured and how accurate are the reports?


Seasoned pharmaceutical sales reps could contribute more and perhaps even more germane questions than I have provided here.   I hope, however,  these questions at the very least,  stimulate thinking and will help formulate a more fact based process for people considering a job or career in pharmaceutical sales.  If this is a career decision for you, a more thorough assessment is warranted, especially for the impact of the ever-changing healthcare market on your products, your company, and your job function.  I would suggest writing out answers to your questions as this can help take the emotion out of the process, will generate additional follow-on questions, and will help keep your decision more factually grounded.  If you are  exploring pharmaceutical sales as just one of many job options,  you might take a different, perhaps less analytical, approach to your decision.   In the end, if you finally decide you would like to become a pharmaceutical sales representative, before taking the job I would recommend you talk with a current sales representative, preferably from the hiring company.  mike@pharmareform.com

Do Manipulative Pharmaceutical Sales Techniques still work?

I’m curious and seriously don’t know the answer to this as it’s been a while since I’ve been in the field.  As a VP of  Sales (admittedly long ago) our management team continuously looked for training programs and techniques to help our sales force be more effective in the physician’s office.   Some were pretty basic but others were just outright manipulative.  I guess in the days of “reach and frequency,”  “reminder detailing,” and unencumbered access we thought we were being cleaver and maybe they even worked to some extent.  At the same time, I have to believe some of these types of techniques also contributed to physician frustration, resentment, and ultimately denied access.

The reason I am asking the question now is because I still see pharmaceutical sales training programs offering what appear to be decade’s old sales techniques that border on manipulative.  Even back in the day when I was selling (admittedly even much longer ago) we learned about “closing the physician”, challenging them, and “getting them to commit.”     I now wonder how much damage these basic sales tenants, combined with a few “tricks,” did in terms of our relationship with physicians.   The reason I say this is because there is nothing more demeaning than to have a sales person try their manipulative sales pitch on you when you go to a store to buy something.  The automobile industry learned this the hard way.  You would think the pharmaceutical industry would have learned by now as well.

But, maybe these techniques and “tricks” still work.  What do you think?  More importantly, how do physicians feel about being sold this way?


How to Stop “Off-Label” Marketing and Sales of Prescription Drugs

I’m a little tired of reading about “off-label” promotion of prescription drugs, especially in the context of whistleblower instigated fraud cases and lawyer/patient driven product liability cases.  I’m not a lawyer but here are some solutions that would discourage inappropriate “off-label” promotion and would consume far fewer resources and certainly cost a lot less than is being spent now on litigating these types of offenses.

First, Pharma companies should not promote products for uses that are not approved by the FDA.  If a company is found guilty of “off-label” promotion, in addition to any corporate fines (which should equal total product revenues during the time of illegal promotion) , responsible individuals should be held legally accountable and convicted, with personal fines, disgorgement of incentive compensation during the time of illegal activities, and even incarceration if warranted.  No corporate settlements.  It is very likely that criminally charged front line employees directed or even trained to promote for off-label uses may be more than willing to offer up and provide evidence against culpable higher level executives who encouraged or approved of the promotion.  I’m pretty sure this would increase executive management oversight to ensure compliance.

To remove the financial incentives for “off-label” promotion, government programs (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and states) should not reimburse for unapproved uses of prescription drugs.  If the patient wants to pay for the unapproved use of a prescription drug that a physicians has prescribed, that should be their choice.  At the same time, that choice carries the liability that if something should go wrong; the only legal recourse for the patient should be to hold the prescribing physician and perhaps their healthcare provider accountable.  Because “off-label“ use is an informed decision, neither the patient nor the physician (or healthcare provider system) could sue the pharmaceutical company for any negative consequences resulting from the unapproved use.  Physicians who prescribe for unapproved uses but post a diagnosis that aligns with approved uses just so the patient can get it reimbursed would face fraud charges and be held personally liable.  Similarly, there would be no need for federal or state litigation against pharmaceutical companies for False Claims that inappropriately causing taxpayers to fund unapproved uses.

If physicians and patients have made a choice to use a product “off-label” and private payers (insurance companies, employers, or PBMs) choose to pay for the unapproved use then they should assume the same liabilities as stated above.  They are making an informed decision and the payer is agreeing with that choice by reimbursing for the unapproved use.  The patient could sue the prescribing physician, healthcare system, and perhaps the payer, but they would have no legal recourse against the pharmaceutical company should a harmful event occur from the unapproved use.

But what about all the “medically established” unapproved uses in treating things like cancer?  The same rules and legal liabilities should apply.  Physicians have the choice to prescribe, patients have the choice to take, and payers have the choice to reimburse for the unapproved use if they want to assume the liabilities with the inability to sue the pharmaceutical company.  If the medical experts, patient advocacy groups, or government programs and insurance companies feel a prescription drug should be approved and reimbursable for a particular use, they should petition the FDA and submit their clinical proof of efficacy and safety to obtain an FDA approved label claim for the product.

While preserving physician, patient, and payer choice these recommendations remove a major financial incentive (reimbursement) for pharmaceutical companies and increase the legal consequences for individuals who inappropriately promote for off-label uses of prescription drugs.  More importantly, it appropriately shifts product liability for unapproved uses to healthcare providers and payers.   www.PharmaReform.com

Divining the Future from JP Morgan Healthcare Conference Presentations

The J P Morgan Healthcare Conference is, among other things, an annual four days of back to back 30 minute presentations by Pharma, biotech, device companies, CROs, and a diversity of healthcare institutions.  C-level presenters, mostly CEOs, trying to persuade analysts and potential investors that they have the business model designed for increasing shareholder value, some bolstered by forward looking statement disclaimed historically based promises for product approvals, revenue and earnings growth,  dividends, and stock buy backs.

The conference is the premiere healthcare conference in the industry and has become “old home week” for industry executives to reconnect, schmooze, and initiate discussions for potential deals.  Getting an invitation is near impossible if you are not among the presenting companies or on the JP Morgan A-list.  I am neither, so I spent last week listening to all the webcasts that are available for the Pharma and biotech company presentations.

Perhaps the single most stunning, yet less obvious (non- investor perspective) “take away” for me was how rapidly Big Pharma is moving away from Primary Care.  With almost 75% of prescriptions now being filled with generic drugs, the trend may not be that surprising.  What is surprising is that the pace of proactive strategic abandonment of Primary Care is far more dramatic than what I believe most people in the industry would want to admit or even realize.

This trend really got my attention when companies with traditional Primary Care portfolios blatantly stated or clearly outlined that they have strategically refocused their pipelines and commercialization efforts to target specialty markets.  With very few exceptions, company presentations were absent references to products or commercial strategies targeting the Primary Care market.  Oncology, neurology, psychiatry, rheumatology, and dermatology seem to be the focus of attention unless you had a Hepatitis C compound in your pipeline.

Again, the interest in specialty products is not surprising.  They command higher prices, yielding higher margins with less onerous managed market intervention into prescribing practices.   From a commercial perspective, specialists represent a smaller, more easily targeted and sales force friendly customer base.   Specialty market physicians and their patients also seek out and are more receptive to disease and treatment information making promotional education a viable and efficient tactic.

The implications of this trend away from Primary Care are clear.  Fewer sales reps needed for calling on Primary Care.  Less need for expensive Primary Care sales and marketing support activities such as purchasing mass market prescription data, coordinating the complexities of territory management and sales reporting, and dealing with sales force related employee relations issues.  It also means fewer industry sponsored educational programs for Primary Care.  Fewer Primary Care clinical trials.   And,  fewer new Primary Care products means Primary Care physicians and their patients will have to be satisfied and content with the treatment options currently available to them.

The real message here is that while Primary Care has been at the foundation of Big Pharma growth and financial success in the past and there may well be exceptions in the future, the importance and interest of Primary Care to Big Pharma is diminishing quickly.  If your expertise or responsibilities include pharmaceutical sales and marketing to the Primary Care market, I believe your days are numbered and you probably have fewer days than you might think.  Specialty products and markets are where the action is and where the industry is headed and it is moving fast.   mike@pharmareform.com

Banning Pharmaceutical Sales Representative Access to Physicians

Pharmaceutical companies are held legally and financially accountable for making sure their drugs are used appropriately and that physicians and patients are aware of and understand the risks associated with their prescription drugs.

Product liability litigation against pharmaceutical companies often feature how the pharmaceutical company insufficiently or inaccurately informed physicians  (often highlighting what the sales representative said or didn’t say and the brochure used) about the appropriate use of products (right patients, right dose) or communicated misleading understatements or outright omissions of the risks associated with prescribing those drugs.  Companies who can demonstrate they did everything they could to accurately and comprehensively inform the prescribing physician, especially about the risks involved in the plaintiff claims, are generally afforded some degree of legal protection under what is called the “learned intermediary” doctrine.

An increasing number of healthcare systems, hospitals, and academic medical centers are banning pharmaceutical sales representatives from their institutions.  Some group practices and even individual physicians are also placing restrictions on pharmaceutical representatives.  The intent is often to control the influence of sales representatives on physician prescribing but also to preclude representatives from distracting physicians and consuming practice time with interactions that are perceived to have little or no value.

Whatever the reason for limiting sales rep access to physicians, I am wondering how pharmaceutical companies could possibly be expected to fulfill and demonstrate their “duty to warn” responsibilities when institutions and physicians have decided to ignore and outright refuse one of the historically most effective means of communicating product information.  Will the package insert information now be the basis for appropriately “informing” the medical community and satisfy the “learned intermediary” doctrine?

Again, I am not a lawyer but I wonder what the courts and patients are going to say when a pharmaceutical company facing a “failure to warn” product liability charge demonstrates that their package insert clearly delineates the appropriate use and potential risks and they did everything they could to get the information to the physician but they were banned or denied access.  What are physicians going to tell their suing patients when the pharmaceutical company representatives testify that they tried repeatedly to get time with the treating physicians  to discuss the risks and benefits of the drug but were prohibited by policy and rejected at the office or hospital.

If healthcare systems and physicians make the decision not to include pharmaceutical company representatives in their drug education process are they also assuming more liability when pharmaceutical companies defend themselves by demonstrating that healthcare systems and physicians “chose” not to be informed or educated by the company?   They may in fact feel this is no big deal, they’ll just do their own educating.  But if physicians and healthcare systems assume this responsibility and take the deep pockets of the pharmaceutical company  “off the table” , are they really ready to assume the financial consequences or will patients seeking compensation and their lawyers be less quick to file these product liability suits?


Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives are not Selling

Have things changed that much or have sales reps with the help of their lawyers just figured out how to characterize the pharmaceutical sales representative position so as to align their cases with the FLSA definitions for “non-exempt?”  Granted, it has been a while since I have been in the field (as a rep or riding along) but I always felt pharmaceutical sales reps were pretty autonomous, responsible, and accountable for “selling” the company products (legal and regulatory constraints considered) and “managing” the business in their territories.

Ok.  I’m not an attorney but the recent U.S. District Court ruling (Kuzinski, et al. v. Schering Corporation, Civil No. 3:07cv233 (JBA), August 5, 2011) would seem to suggest that all pharmaceutical representatives will have to be classified “non-exempt” hourly employees and be eligible for overtime pay.

By the courts’ strict interpretation of the FLSA (Fair Labor Standards Act) definition, pharmaceutical representatives do not actually make sales. Basically, they do not “consummate sales or obtain contracts or orders” or “binding commitments for purchase” from the physicians they call on and therefore do not qualify for the “outside sales exemption.”  This is hard to argue when a Department of Labor FLSA literal definition for prescription drug “sales” would only occur at the pharmacy or within the supply chain (e.g., wholesalers, chain pharmacies, buying groups, and hospitals) through negotiation, contract, and transaction activities that do not directly involve pharmaceutical representatives.  Despite arguments about the regulatory requirements dictating the role of physicians in the prescription drug sales process, without a lenient interpretation (consideration for regulatory and prescription drug market limitations) of the FLSA definition, it is unlikely that pharmaceutical representatives could ever qualify under the “outside sales exemption.”

The court’s interpretation of “administrative exemption” as it pertains to pharmaceutical representatives, however, is even more disconcerting.  It seems that if you do any training, supply any company developed sales materials or territory management assistance, or provide any management oversight, the courts will determine that “the primary duties” of pharmaceutical representatives do not include the “exercise of discretion and independent judgment with respect to matters of significance.”  This would suggest that the only way to qualify for the “administrative exemption” is to make sure pharmaceutical representatives have complete autonomy (totally independent of any corporate input), do their own training and planning, do whatever they want in the territories that they define as theirs (on their own with no physician or account data supplied by the company), decide and say what they want about the products they choose to promote, and are not managed or supervised in any way.

While this may sound absurd, this is not meant as a sarcastic commentary and certainly is not meant as legal advice but rather a practical observation of how the courts seem to be interpreting the FLSA definitions for “outside sales” and the “administrative exemption” as they pertain to pharmaceutical representatives.  As a result, if the courts continue to rule on these grounds,  I believe pharmaceutical companies will have little choice but to classify pharmaceutical representatives as “non-exempt” hourly employees and will be forced to implement some of the types of tactics discussed in an earlier post.  mike@pharmareform.com

New Work Rules for Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives

Several courts have now determined that pharmaceutical sales representatives should be considered “non-exempt” hourly employees and therefore are entitled to overtime pay.  In coming to this conclusion the courts agreed with the pharmaceutical sales representatives who filed the suits claiming they were not sales people or professionals exercising discretion or independent judgment as defined by provisions of the Fail Labor Act for “exempt” employees.  If the courts continue to hold these findings to be true, here are some new work rules “non-exempt” pharmaceutical representatives can expect to see:

  •  Your work day is expected to be 8 hours per day Monday through Friday between 7am and 6pm.  You must not work more than 8 hours per day or more than 40 hours per week without prior written approval from your District Manager.
  • Working weekends (Saturday or Sunday) or holidays is prohibited unless you have prior written approval from your District Manager for a particular weekend or holiday requiring your presence for work related activities.
  • You are expected to “clock in” using your iPad when you leave your home for work and “clock out” when you have completed your 8 hour work day.  You must plan to complete your 8 hour work day with arrival back at your home.  You can chose to complete your 8 hour work day in your territory but that will be your choice and you will be on personal time after the point you “clock out.”   Use of the company car from that point to the return to your home must be recorded as personal miles .
  • If you receive emergency customer calls (you are not to make customer calls except in response to their call) outside your work day hours, you are to record those (caller name, time of call, purpose of call) in your weekly activity report and include the time in your time log.  You will have to adjust your subsequent work time so as not to exceed the 40 hours per week maximum.
  • Failure to “clock in and out” may result in loss of pay for that period of time.  Repeatedly “forgetting to clock in or out” may result in disciplinary action including the possibility of termination.
  • You may take personal time during the work day as long as you put in your 8 hours between the hours of 7am and 6pm.  You must clock out and back in for all personal time taken during the work day.  Other than clocking out and back in, you do not have to provide any information regarding personal time activities.
  • If you plan to take more than 2 hours of personal time during work day hours (7am to 6pm) on any one day you must get prior approval for a vacation day.
  • You will be gps tracked to verify time and location for all work related time during your work day.  This will also be used to verify mileage for business versus personal use of the company car.
  • You are required to clock out and back in for your mandatory 15 minute breaks, once in the morning and once in the afternoon.  You can not skip breaks or combine break times. You are not to do work related activities during your breaks.
  • You must clock out and back in for your mandatory 1 hour lunch break during which you are not to do work related activities.  You can not skip your lunch break and your lunch break must be taken daily between 10am and 1pm.   If you do a work related food activity with physicians or office staff during lunch time, this can not be your lunch break.
  • Nobody, not even your District or Region Manager or the VP of Sales, can require you or request that you do work related activities when you are clocked out, including for breaks and lunches.
  • Because all work related travel time counts against your 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week, all territories will be reevaluated and realigned where necessary to minimize travel requirements.
  • Where possible, all company required meetings will now be by teleconference or video conference to avoid travel.
  • You will not be expected or allowed to travel outside your territory to attend any medical or scientific meetings or conferences, if it means you will exceed your 8 hours per day of work.
  • District meetings will be kept to a minimum and centrally located to minimize travel for all attendees.  District meetings will be structured to an 8 hour work day with the mandatory “non-business-related” breaks and lunch for which you must “clock out and back in”.  You will be required to take your lunch break and can not do any work related activities during your District meeting lunch break.   So as to not encourage work related activity during District meeting lunch breaks, you will be expected to determine where you would like to have your lunch and pay for your own lunch.  There will be no District meetings requiring overnight stays.
  • Any travel outside your territory, except for District Meetings, will require prior written approval from your District Manager.  If travel time requires you to take more than 8 hours per day to attend and return home from a District meeting, you must have prior written approval from your District manager with the anticipated “Overtime” required to make the meeting.
  • Only company provided training programs will be considered “work related” required training for which work day time will be allotted.   Any additional training, reading, or research you choose to do with regards to your job or career development will be your choice and done on your personal time.  These “extra” activities will not be required and are therefore “on your own personal time.”
  • You will be allotted 2 hours of “work time” every week to take care of any company required administrative tasks (e.g., expense reports, weekly activity reports, or planning) or training. You must be clocked in during this time.
  • Your biweekly pay will be automatically calculated from your time sheets captured from your “clock in and clock out” data.
  • Any exceptions to these work rules must be identified upfront with the anticipated number of “work hours” involved, any anticipated overtime hours identified, and must have prior written approval from your District Manager.
  • Failure to comply with any of these new work rules will result in disciplinary action including the potential for termination.

I am not espousing these rules and I have probably missed a few.  I’m not an attorney but I tried to look at what pharmaceutical companies might have to do to avoid further Fair Labor Act liabilities by establishing work day expectations and accurately tracking and recording work hours for pharmaceutical representatives who are considered “non-exempt” hourly employees.

Of course, the company will have the choice to just pay the overtime when they want to make the exceptions for business reasons.  But, to manage overtime pay and not have it be abused or extended beyond financial feasibility and to avoid litigation, these types of work rules will almost certainly be required.  One could also argue that these work rules are necessary to protect the “non-exempt” pharmaceutical representative from being taken advantage of by management.

While I’m sure some reps may be applauding the overtime pay rulings, I see this as an unfortunate situation, fostering a distrustful work environment with a demoralizing outcome for “professional pharmaceutical representatives.”  How disappointing that it has come to this.    mike@pharmareform.com

Are Pharmaceutical Marketing and Sales Targeting Pharmacists?

In an earlier post we discussed the role of the clinical pharmacist in the evolving new healthcare market.  Medication therapy management as required by CMS as a part of Medicare Part D plans is a good example of where and how pharmacists can and are expected to help improve adherence and therefore clinical outcomes while potentially lowering overall healthcare costs.  Given the healthcare failure statistics we  previously discussed it’s hard to imagine that medication therapy management really gets all that much attention from pharmacists or pharmaceutical marketers.

A recent featured article in Health Benefit News highlights the success WellPoint has experienced in a pilot program to enlist and pay pharmacists for more attentive “medication therapy management.”  They were able to demonstrate increases in adherence which not surprisingly translated to better control of disease symptoms for hypertension,  hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus.   While pharmacy costs went up they also “saw a great reduction in hospitalizations.”  Overall, in the one year study, they saw cost neutral results, but concluded “it’s going to take more than a one-year time frame to see dramatic changes in cost.”

The healthcare market (with pressure from government, payers and insurers) is getting more aggressive about delivering better clinical outcomes as one way to help increase quality and lower the cost of care.  So whether it is through Accountable Care Organizations, Integrated Healthcare Systems, or just enhancing outcomes from solo or group practice settings, I believe pharmacists will play an increasingly important role in medication therapy management, especially adherence-enhancing programs.   Pharmaceutical marketers who view the retail or hospital pharmacist as merely a dispenser of medications and cursory counseling will be putting their products at risk of competitive erosion and never meeting their full commercial potential in the evolving new healthcare market.

So what’s a pharmaceutical marketer to do?

Well, how many pharmaceutical marketers have assessed (not just mentally speculated) how their product might perform in this type of a trial or study?  How many have commissioned similar types of studies?  How many marketers have partnered with healthcare provider systems to determine the adherence value (clinical outcome differences) between adherent and non-adherent patients and what the value proposition could be?  How many marketers have actually met with pharmacists about their evolving role? How many have started to work with pharmacists on developing educational programs and materials for their products?  How many have pharmacist training programs for their patient education programs?  More importantly, how many pharmacists are considered high priority calls for your sales representatives?

I think I just heard somebody say…”of course we are doing all this.”

Great.  Now, are you doing it as  just another marketing tactic?

I might suggest that if you are doing it to genuinely help patients, pharmacists, and healthcare provider systems achieve their goals, you will find a much more receptive audience, ready to embrace your efforts and make meaningful contributions to your product success without feeling compromised.      mike@pharmareform.com

Top 5 Pharmaceutical Sales Representative Posts at Pharma Reform

It has been 18 months, over 100 posts, and 260 comments.  Here are the top 5 most viewed pharmaceutical sales representative related posts:

  1. Who is Killing the Pharmaceutical Sales Position?

  2. What does your CEO think about Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives?

  3. Lasting District Sales Manager Advice for his Pharmaceutical Sales Representative

  4. Healthcare Market considerations for Eliminating Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives

  5. Professional Pharmaceutical Representative Compensation

Thank you.  mike@pharmreform.com

Lasting District Sales Manager Advice for his Pharmaceutical Sales Representative

It has taken me a long time and a lot of reflection to acknowledge and appreciate the sage advice my first district manager gave me over 30 years ago.

Here are some of the nuggets of wisdom I found helpful that might be of interest regardless of where you are in your career.  You’ll notice these apply more universally to business than just to the sales position I was in at the time.  They may seem simple and obvious but like many things in life, holding true to their full intent and purpose is much harder than the words might suggest, especially over the course of a career.

Show up: Put in a full day, everyday.  Not just when you feel like it or want to,  but especially when you don’t feel like it or don’t want to.  Most people don’t.

Follow up: check regularly and return phone calls immediately. You don’t know the customer’s sense of urgency, it could be an emergency.  When you promise to do something, send something, or check back … do it… no excuses.

Make one more call: At the end of the day when you are ready to go home, make one more sales call.  This extra effort accumulates into an additional month of sales calls every year.  You never know when that one extra call is going to make a difference for your customer, a patient, or for your incentive compensation.

You get one shot at trust: If your customers quit trusting you, they quit buying from you.  They catch you once in a lie, misrepresentation, or faking an answer, they have no reason to believe you after that.

Be ready for your next job before you get it: This meant that I would have to find the time, energy, and commitment to stretching my development to include subjects and skills beyond my current position. In other words, take responsibility for my own education and career development.  

As busy as we were the days he rode with me, I always found it interesting that he found quiet time to have a cup of coffee to have these discussions.  He made it a point to make sure I was able to listen, commit my complete attention, and engage in the discussion.  This was never during drive time in the car when it might have been convenient and perceived as a good use of time but he knew I would have too many distractions to absorb the salient points he was making.

I feel fortunate to have the opportunity to pass these along to you.  Hopefully they will be useful in the pursuit of your career aspirations.  Perhaps some of you will share some of the more useful pieces of insight, advice, or coaching that you received in your career.